Calling it only the Afghanistan problem, just because it took place in Afghanistan would be unfair. US had a very significant involvement in the massive destruction that have took place in Afghanistan in focus. Calling this a 21st Century problem would also be unfair because it all started long way back in the 1970s when US Pakistan grouped together to defeat the Soviet Nation in Afghanistan. This was a result of huge amounts of military equipment being brought into Pakistan and Afghanistan to fight the soviets. Well, the soviets were defeated but something was left behind and now people were intrigued in using them for personal gains after they had seen the impact that it had on such a powerful nation as the Soviet! That was guns. A lot of them infact!
Afghanistan politics added fuel to the power and it started the rise of Islamic extremists. These extremist wanted an overly strict Islamic regime in the country but with the modernization, the civilians didn’t feel like it and that brought a wedge between the government and the ‘Taliban’. Taliban had one big advantage, and that was the access to weapons. This was a call for war and guess who came in helping? You guessed it, the US. In a probably failed attempt to colonize Afghanistan, US were now involved in bombings in Afghanistan on behalf of the Afghanistani government because it was helpless at this stage. This angered the Talibans who now started doing the same. What followed was a slew of attacks on the civilians with very little Talibans or US forces killed, majority of them being the civilians wanting a peaceful lives and nothing else.
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Being a Muslim country, who had previously helped US in Afghanistan, Pakistan was in a very difficult state as Afghanistan was not ready to listen to whatever they had to put to the table and so Pakistan started working on its relations with its neighbor. After almost 30 years of constant panic in Afghanistan, and still continues, US and the Taliban decided to hold talks. The demands from both sides were not suggestions or any sign of a peace talk but they were straightout threats. US threatened the Taliban of not initiating any attacks in the US or they will face consequences, and Taliban still adamant to takeover the country by force to impose their so-called ‘Islamic law’. This caused in impass. A breakdown of negotiations and now Pakistan had to intervene with its improved relations. The recent visit of the Taliban to Shah Mahmood Qureshi showed positive signs and called US to resume talks.
At this current state, there doesn’t seem to be anyway out for Afghanistan other than democracy which does not involve the Taliban’s interference in the talks. However, US being the one to shun the Taliban is only going to make matters worse.